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Monday, November 20, 2017

Story behind development of UNIX operating system

Hello friends, welcome to series the story behind.

Today, I will tell you the story behind development of operating system Unix.
How it is started? How it become popular?
People and organizations behind it and so on..

In 1960 the AT&T Bell laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and General electric started developing a time sharing operating system called MULTICS( Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) for Mainframe computes. But It became very complex, management was dissatisfied with this system and decided to withdraw the project in 1967.

In 1970 GE sold there computer business to Honeywell,  Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie programmers from the 'Bell Labs' computing research department, had worked on Multics. They decided to write his own operating system later it renamed as UNIX. In November 1971, the first version of Unix was releases. These 2 guys also released book Unix PROGRAMMER'S MANUAL.
Next year, 1972, new version of Unix and high lever programming language 'B' is released, later rewritten and named as C (by Dennis Ritchie).

In November 1973 Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie first time formally presented UNIX operating system to the outside world in conference the Symposium on Operating Systems Principles at Purdue University. At that conference, Bob Fabry professor of the University of California, Berkeley was present and he is responsible for bringing UNIX to Berkeley. Unix become public and it was made available to Government, Military and Universities on license basis.
Prof. Bob Fabry
Prof. Bob Fabry obtained copy of Unix at the cost of 99$ to cut cost in setting up the campus, computing resources and also for research at university. At that time Unix license also come with full source code and researchers can modify and extend it. Graduate student Bill Joy, researchers and hackers from Berkeley was working on making changes to the original Unix. 
BSD Unix Logo
The word had spread, and in 1977 more and more people were asking for their (Berkeley) modified UNIX version. Those were mostly other Universities. Joy released Berkeley UNIX under the name BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution), while AT&T continued developing Unix under the names "System III'' and later "System V''.
Till 1980 AT&T Bell laboratory developed multiple versions of Unix for internal use with different hardware compatibility. At that time there were two Unix developments running parallel one at AT&T Bell labs and another, the academic community, led by Berkeley.
In the late 1980's through early 1990's the ``wars'' between these two major strains raged. After many years each variant adopted many of the key features of the other. Commercially, System V won the "standards wars'' (getting most of its interfaces into the formal standards), and most hardware vendors switched to AT&T's System V.

 In 1980s the companies started building there own versions of the OS and thereby making UNIX as a base for other OS, just like obtain Unix and build it for there own hardware. Many popular UNIX based OS such as BSD, Sun OS, Zenix, AIX, HP-UX came into existence.

IBM Aix logo
The technology giant IBM obtained UNIX and optimized for there own hardware and stared IBM AIX, similarly HP came up with HP-UX, Sun MicroSystems with Sun OS and so on.

 In 90s the Apple Computers based their Mac OS X on BSD UNIX thereby making it a UNIX based system.


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